Enlightenment 101

Economic Sentiments: Adam Smith, Condorcet, and the Enlightenment, by Emma Rothschild



The Enlightenment has variously been described, "the idea of a universal disposition of enlightenment, or of a discursive, disputatious theorizing way of life."

~ Emma Rothschild, Economic Sentiments: Adam Smith, Condorcet, and the Enlightenment, reviewed in Money and Love by Peter Berkowitz.











Enemies of the Enlightenment: The French Counter-Enlightenment and the Making of Modernity, by Darrin McMahonEnemies of the Enlightenment: The French Counter-Enlightenment and the Making of Modernity, by Darrin McMahon


"Everywhere philosophie lights the torch of discord and of war, prepares poisons, sharpens swords, lays fires, orders murder, massacre, and carnage, sacrifices fathers by the hand of sons, and sons by the hand of fathers. It directs lances and swords at the heads and the breasts of sovereigns, placing them on scaffolds, which it yearns to see flowing with sovereign's blood–blood that it will drink in deep draughts as it feasts its eyes on the horrible specter of their torn, mutilated, and bloody members."

~ Charles-Louis Richard, Dominican priest, Exposition de la doctrine de la philosophie moderne, 1785

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